Category Archives: Edible flowers

Edible plants of the Sintra Natural Park

In the morning of the masterclass on permaveggies on 1st November 2018 organised by the Janas Ecovillage, we visited Jardim da Condessa D’Edla in collaboration with the Sintra Natural Parks! Fernanda Botelho​ and myself lead the tour of this amazing place seeking out a large diversity of edible plants, both wild and cultivated :)

Mid-October flowers in the Edible Garden

No frost thus far in October and it looks like it could be a frost free month! That and record high temperatures and there are a lot of plants still flowering or reflowering! Most but not all are edible!

15 year record salad ingredients

A few months ago, I found an Excel file with a complete list of ingredients in my 537 plant species (including varieties) unofficial world record salad from  2003. I thought it was lost!  I decided then to  publish the list on the 15th Anniversary which is TODAY!! So, here is the list for the first time on the world wide web (see below)!
See also

To celebrate, the students of the PDC course I’m teaching on in Hurdal this week made a 15 species salad with the number 15 written in flowers:

  1. Achillea decolorans English mace
  2. Achillea millefolium Yarrow
  3. Acinos arvensis Basil Thyme Bakkemynte
  4. Aegopodium podagraria Ground Elder    Skvallerkål
  5. Aegopodium podograria variegata
  6. Agastache “Blue Fortune”
  7. Agastache “Licquorice”
  8. Agastache anisata Anise Hyssop     Anisisop
  9. Agastache anisata alba Anise Hyssop     Anisisop
  10. Agastache aurantiaca
  11. Agastache foeniculum aureum
  12. Agastache mexicana Mexican Giant Hyssop
  13. Agastache nepetoides
  14. Agastache rugosa Korean Mint
  15. Agastache scrophularaefolia
  16. Alcea rosea “Salmon Queen”
  17. Alchemilla alpina
  18. Alchemilla faroensis
  19. Alliaria petiolata Garlic Mustard
  20. Allium “unknown” Hardwick Hall
  21. Allium alleghaniense
  22. Allium amphibolum
  23. Allium angulosum
  24. Allium carinatum
  25. Allium cepa “Red Beard”
  26. Allium cepa “White Lisbon” Salad Onion
  27. Allium cepa “Turbo” Onion   Kepaløk
  28. Allium cepa ascalonicum “Griselle” Shallot  Sjallot
  29. Allium cepa ascalonicum “Red French” Shallot  Sjallot
  30. Allium cepa proliferum Egyptian Onion Luftløk
  31. Allium cernuum “Pink Giant”
  32. Allium cernuum album Nodding Onion Prairieløk
  33. Allium cyaneum Blåløk
  34. Allium cyathophorum
  35. Allium cyathophorum v. farreri
  36. Allium fetisowii
  37. Allium japonicum
  38. Allium komarovianum
  39. Allium mairei
  40. Allium ochotense
  41. Allium oviflorum
  42. Allium panicum “Dwarf Selection”
  43. Allium porrum “Musselburgh” Leaves  Leek
  44. Allium pulchellum album
  45. Allium ramosum
  46. Allium sativum “Alexandra” Garlic    Hvitløk
  47. Allium sativum “Hammar” Garlic    Hvitløk
  48. Allium sativum “Rosewood” Garlic    Hvitløk
  49. Allium sativum “Sprint” Garlic    Hvitløk
  50. Allium sativum “Storklyfta” Garlic    Hvitløk
  51. Allium sativum “Thermidrome” Garlic    Hvitløk
  52. Allium schoenoprasum Chives Gressløk
  53. Allium schoenoprasum “Major” Chives   Gressløk
  54. Allium schoenoprasum “Pink Flowered” Chives   Gressløk
  55. Allium schoenoprasum “Wallington White” Chives   Gressløk
  56. Allium schoenoprasum “White Flowered” Chives   Gressløk
  57. Allium schoenoprasum alpinum Alpine Chives
  58. Allium schoenoprasum ssp. sibiricum Siberian Chives Sibirgressløk
  59. Allium schoenoprasum yezamonticola Chives
  60. Allium sclimensis
  61. Allium scorodoprasum jajlae
  62. Allium scorodoprasum rotundum
  63. Allium senescens calcareum German Garlic   Kantløk
  64. Allium senescens glaucum (syn. A. spiralis) German Garlic   Kantløk
  65. Allium senescens ssp. montanum (syn. var. calcareum) German Garlic Kantløk
  66. Allium sikkimense
  67. Allium siskiyouense
  68. Allium splendens (syn. lineare) Miyama-rakkyo
  69. Allium stellatum Prairie Onion
  70. Allium strictum
  71. Allium tangeticum
  72. Allium tuberosum Garlic Chives      Kinagressløk
  73. Allium turkestanicum
  74. Allium uniflorum
  75. Allium wallichii
  76. Allium spp. (wild)
  77. Aloysia triphylla Lemon Verbena              Sitronverbena
  78. Althaea cannabina
  79. Althaea officinalis
  80. Amaranthus “Fat Spike”
  81. Amaranthus caudatus
  82. Amaranthus cruentus
  83. Amaranthus gangeticus “Elephant Head”
  84. Amaranthus hypochondriacus “Black Leaf”
  85. Amaranthus hypochondriacus “Local variety, Kenya”
  86. Amaranthus tricolor
  87. Amelanchier canadensis Dried
  88. Amygdalus communis Almond
  89. Angelica archangelica Angelica              Kvann
  90. Angelica archangelica “Vossakvann” Angelica              Kvann
  91. Angelica atropurpurea
  92. Angelica gigas Korean Angelica
  93. Angelica grayii
  94. Angelica heterophylla
  95. Angelica saxatilis
  96. Antirrihinum mix
  97. Apium graveolens “Self-Blanching” Celery   Selleri
  98. Apium graveolens “Solid White” Celery   Selleri
  99. Apium graveolens sepalinum “Leaf Celery” Leaf Celery         Bladselleri
  100. Arabis alpina Alpine Rock Cress
  101. Arabis alpina alpina Alpine Rock Cress
  102. Arabis alpina rosea Alpine Rock Cress
  103. Arabis alpina ssp. caucasica “Bakkely” Alpine Rock Cress
  104. Arabis caucasica Wall Rock Cress               Hageskrinneblom
  105. Arachis hypogaea Peanut  Peanøtt
  106. Armeniaca officinalis Apricot Aprikos
  107. Armoracia rusticana Horseradish       Pepperrot
  108. Armoracia rusticana variegata Horseradish       Pepperrot
  109. Aronia melanocarpa Aronia (dried)   Svartsurbær
  110. Artemisia abrotanum Southernwood  Abrodd
  111. Artemisia dracunculus dracunculoides Russian Tarragon              Russisk Estragon
  112. Artemisia dracunculus sativa French Tarragon             Fransk estragon
  113. Asparagus officinalis Asparagus
  114. Aster tripolium Sea Aster
  115. Atriplex babingtonii
  116. Atriplex halimus
  117. Atriplex hortensis Orach   Hagemelde
  118. Atriplex hortensis “Red Plume” Orach Hagemelde
  119. Atriplex hortensis rubra Orach   Hagemelde
  120. Avena sativa Oats      Havre
  121. Balsamita major Alecost
  122. Barbarea vulgaris Winter Yellowcress        Vinterkarse
  123. Barbarea vulgaris variegata Variegated Winter Yellowcress
  124. Bellis perennis Daisy     Tusenfryd
  125. Bertholletia excelsa Brazil Nut           Paranøtt
  126. Beta vulgaris “Barbabietola” Beetroot             Bete
  127. Beta vulgaris “Forono” Beetroot             Bete
  128. Beta vulgaris “Mc. Gregor’s Favourite” Beetroot             Bete
  129. Beta vulgaris “White Devoy” Beetroot             Bete
  130. Beta vulgaris altissima Sugar Beet         Sukkerbete
  131. Beta vulgaris flavescens Swiss Chard       Mangold
  132. Beta vulgaris maritima Sea Beet             Vill Bete
  133. Borago officinalis
  134. Borago officinalis “Variegated” Borage  Agurkurt
  135. Borago officinalis alba Borage  Agurkurt
  136. Brassica juncea “Frilly” Leaf Mustard     Sennep
  137. Brassica napus napobrassica “Petrowskii” Swede  Kålrot
  138. Brassica nigra
  139. Brassica oleracea “Ragged Jack” Kale       Grønnkål
  140. Brassica oleracea gemmifera ?? Brussel Sprouts Rosenkål
  141. Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes “Early White Vienna” Kohlrabi Knutekål
  142. Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes “Giant” Kohlrabi              Knutekål
  143. Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes “Purple Vienna” Kohlrabi              Knutekål
  144. Brassica oleracea var. italica “Green Sprouting” Calabrese Brokkoli
  145. Brassica rapa “Snowball” Turnip  Nepe
  146. Brassica rapa narinosa Tatsoi
  147. Brassica rapa ssp. nipposinica var. laciniata Mizuna
  148. Calamintha ascendens
  149. Calamintha grandiflora Large-flowered Calamint
  150. Calamintha nepeta Lesser Calamint               Legecalamint
  151. Calamintha nepeta “Blue Cloud” Lesser Calamint              Legecalamint
  152. Calendula officinalis Pot Marigold
  153. Calendula spp.
  154. Campanula latifolia Giant Bellflower              Storklokke
  155. Campanula persicifolia Peach-leaf Bellflower Fagerklokke
  156. Campanula portenschlagiana   Adria Bellflower       Krypklokke
  157. Campanula punctata
  158. Campanula rapunculus Rampion Rapunkelklokke
  159. Campanula rhombalis
  160. Campanula rotundifolia Harebell
  161. Capsicum annuus (cultivar 1)
  162. Capsicum annuus (cultivar 2)
  163. Cardamine amara Large Bittercress             Bekkekarse
  164. Cardamine flexuosa Wavy Bittercress
  165. Cardamine hirsuta Hairy Bittercress
  166. Cardamine pratensis Cuckoo Flower  Engkarse
  167. Celosia cristata
  168. Chenopodium “Magenta”
  169. Chenopodium album Lamb’s Quarters
  170. Chenopodium bonus-henricus Good King Henry             Stolt Henrik
  171. Chenopodium botrys
  172. Chenopodium capitatum Strawberry Blite
  173. Chenopodium ficifolium
  174. Chenopodium foliosum Leafy Goosefoot
  175. Chenopodium glaucum
  176. Chenopodium rubrum
  177. Chenopodium vulvaria
  178. Chrysanthemum coronarium “Large Leaf” Shingiku; Chopsuey Greens
  179. Chrysanthemum coronarium “Serrated Leaf” Chopsuey Greens
  180. Cicer arietinum Chick Pea Kikkert
  181. Cichorium intybus “Rossa de Verona” Chicory Sikkori
  182. Clinopodium vulgare arundum
  183. Cochlearia danica
  184. Cochlearia officinalis Common Scurvy Grass
  185. Cocos nucifera Coconut              Kokospalme
  186. Conopodium majus Pignut   Jordnøtt
  187. Coriandrum sativum “Long Standing” Cilantro/Coriander              Bladkoriander
  188. Coriandrum sativum “Santo” Cilantro/Coriander              Bladkoriander
  189. Coriandrum sativum “Morocco” Cilantro/Coriander              Bladkoriander
  190. Coriandrum sativum “Elless” Cilantro/Coriander              Bladkoriander
  191. Corylus avellana Hazel    Hassel
  192. Crambe maritima
  193. Crypotaenia japonica Mitsuba
  194. Cucumis sativus “????” Cucumber          Agurk
  195. Cucurbita pepo pepo “” Courgette
  196. Daucus carota “Autumn King” Carrot   Gulrot
  197. Daucus carota “Nantes 2” Carrot   Gulrot
  198. Fagopyrum esculentum Buckwheat Bokhvete
  199. Fagopyrum tataricum
  200. Foeniculum vulgare Fennel
  201. Foeniculum vulgare “Zefa Fino” Florence Fennel Fennikel
  202. Foeniculum vulgare atropurpurea Fennel
  203. Fragaria “June Bearing” June Bearing Strawberry
  204. Fragaria “Pineapple”
  205. Fragaria “Pink Panda”
  206. Fragaria vesca Wild Strawberry              Markjordbær
  207. Fragaria vesca “Alpine Strawberry” Alpine Strawberry
  208. Fragaria vesca “Rugens” Wild Strawberry              Markjordbær
  209. Galium odoratum
  210. Glycine max Soya Bean          Soyabønne
  211. Glycine max “Hokkaido Black” Soya Bean          Soyabønne
  212. Hablitzia tamnoides Rankspinat
  213. Helianthus annuus Sunflower          Solsikke
  214. Hemerocallis “Athen”
  215. Hemerocallis citrina Day Lily Daglilje
  216. Hemerocallis dumortieri Day Lily Daglilje
  217. Hemerocallis fulva “Kwaso”
  218. Hemerocallis middendorfii Day Lily Daglilje
  219. Hibiscus syriacus Rose of Sharon Rosehibisk
  220. Hordeum vulgare Barley   Bygg
  221. Houttuynia cordata Tsi         Kameleonbusk
  222. Houttuynia cordata “Boo Boo” Tsi         Kameleonbusk
  223. Houttuynia cordata “Flore Pleno” Tsi         Kameleonbusk
  224. Houttuynia cordata “Chameleon” Tsi         Kameleonbusk
  225. Humulus lupulus “Hip Hop”
  226. Humulus lupulus aureus
  227. Humulus lupulus variegatus
  228. Hyssopus officinalis Hyssop Isop
  229. Hyssopus officinalis albus Hyssop Isop
  230. Hyssopus officinalis nanus Hyssop Isop
  231. Hyssopus officinalis roseus Hyssop Isop
  232. Hyssopus schugari
  233. Ipomoea aquatica
  234. Juglans regia Walnut               Valnøtt
  235. Lactuca sativa “Grand Rapids”
  236. Lactuca sativa “Revolution”
  237. Lactuca sativa “Rusty”
  238. Lactuca sativa “Cerise” Lettuce Salat
  239. Lactuca sativa “Riccia Foclia” Lettuce Salat
  240. Lactuca sativa angustana Celtuce
  241. Lavandula “Dwarf” Lavender            Lavendel
  242. Lavandula angustifolia “Arctic Snow”
  243. Lavandula angustifolia “Munstead” Lavender
  244. Lavandula spp. Lavender Lavendel
  245. Lavatera “Ruby Regis”
  246. Lavatera arborea variegata
  247. Lavatera trimestris “Dwarf White Cherub”
  248. Lens culinaris “Brown” Lentil     Linse
  249. Lens culinaris “Puy” Lentil     Linse
  250. Lens culinaris “Red Split” Lentil     Linse
  251. Lepidium heterophyllum
  252. Lepidium virginicum
  253. Levisticum officinale
  254. Ligusticum scoticum
  255. Linum usitatissimum Flax
  256. Lippia dulcis Sweet Aztec Herb
  257. Lycopersicon esculentum “Stupice”  Tomato              Tomat
  258. Malus domestica “Aroma” Apple    Eple
  259. Malus domestica “Haugmann” Apple    Eple
  260. Malus domestica “Transparente Blanche” Apple    Eple
  261. Malus domestica “unknown variety 1″
  262. Malus domestica “unknown variety 2″
  263. Malus domestica “unknown variety 3″
  264. Malus domestica “unknown variety 4″
  265. Malva alcea “Fastigiate” Hollyhock Mallow              Rosekattost
  266. Malva crispa Salad Mallow
  267. Malva moschata “Pirouetto alba”
  268. Malva moschata alba Musk Mallow    Moskuskattost
  269. Malva moschata rosea Musk Mallow    Moskuskattost
  270. Malva parviflora
  271. Malva sylvestris Common Mallow            Apotekerkattost
  272. Malva sylvestris “Braveheart” Common Mallow              Apotekerkattost
  273. Malva sylvestris “Mauritania”
  274. Malva sylvestris “Mystic Merlin”
  275. Malva verticillata Kruskattost
  276. Malva verticillata verticillata
  277. Medicago sativa Lucerne              Blålusern
  278. Melissa officinalis Lemon Balm      Sitronmelisse
  279. Melissa officinalis “All Gold” Lemon Balm      Sitronmelisse
  280. Melissa officinalis “Dwarf”
  281. Melissa officinalis variegata Lemon Balm      Sitronmelisse
  282. Mentha “Asian” (longifolia?)     Asian Mint         Asiatiskmynte
  283. Mentha “Chocolate Scented Mint” or “Cocoamint”        Chocolate Mint      Sjokolademynte
  284. Mentha “Mitcham”       Mitcham Mint
  285. Mentha “Golden Silver Mint”
  286. Mentha “Normandiemynte”
  287. Mentha “Orange” Orange Mint
  288. Mentha “Schweitzermynte”
  289. Mentha aquatica Water Mint        Vassmynte
  290. Mentha aquatica “Citrata”
  291. Mentha arvensis Corn Mint         Åkermynte
  292. Mentha arvensis var. sachalensis Sakhalin Mint
  293. Mentha cervina
  294. Mentha corsica
  295. Mentha longifolia Buddleia Mint   Gråmynte
  296. Mentha piperita citrata “Basil” Basil Mint
  297. Mentha piperita citrata “Lemon” Lemon Mint      Sitronmynte
  298. Mentha piperita citrata “Lime” Lime Mint
  299. Mentha rotundifolia variegata Pineapple Mint Ananasmynte
  300. Mentha rubra raripita
  301. Mentha spicata Spearmint          Grønnmynte
  302. Mentha spicata “Tashkent”
  303. Mentha spicata crispi Curly Mint          Krusemynte
  304. Mentha spicata nana Moroccan Mint
  305. Mentha spicata var. Spearmint
  306. Mentha verticillata?
  307. Mentha x dalmatica (Mentha arvensis x M. Longifolia) Dalmatian Mint
  308. Mentha x gentilis Ginger Mint       Ingefærmynte
  309. Mentha x piperita Peppermint      Peppermynte
  310. Mentha x piperita “Black Beauty” Peppermint      Peppermynte
  311. Mentha x piperita “Chocolate” Peppermint      Peppermynte
  312. Mentha x piperita “Citrata” Lemon Mint       Sitronmynte
  313. Mentha x piperita alba White Peppermint          Hvit Peppermynte
  314. Mentha x piperita piperita Black Peppermint
  315. Mentha x rotundifolia (M. suaveolens) Apple Mint        Rundmynte?
  316. Mentha x verticillata
  317. Mertensia maritima ssp. asiatica
  318. Meum athamanticum Spignel Meu      Bjønnrot
  319. Mimulus luteus
  320. Monarda “Cambridge Scarlet”
  321. Monarda “Elsie Lavender”
  322. Monarda “Panorama”
  323. Monarda “Violet Queen” Hestemynte/Etasjeblomst
  324. Monarda didyma “Croftway Pink”
  325. Monarda didyma “Marshall’s Pride”
  326. Monarda didyma “Purple” Bee Balm              Hestemynte/Etasjemynte
  327. Monarda fistulosa Wild Bergamot  Rørhestemynte
  328. Monarda fistulosa menthaefolia Wild Bergamot              Rørhestemynte
  329. Monarda punctata Spotted Mint
  330. Monarda spp.
  331. Montia sibirica
  332. Myrrhis odorata Sweet Chervil    Spansk Kjørvel
  333. Nasturtium officinale Watercress        Grønn engelskkarse
  334. Nepeta cataria citriodora Lemon Catmint Sitron Kattemynte
  335. Ocimum basilicum “Large Leaf”
  336. Ocimum basilicum “Troll”
  337. Oenothera biennis Evening Primrose; German Rampion              Vanlig Nattlys
  338. Origanum “Cream Splash”
  339. Origanum “Gold” Taynuilt
  340. Origanum “Unknown”
  341. Origanum “Acorn Bank”
  342. Origanum “Golden Curly”
  343. Origanum compactum
  344. Origanum heracleoticum (syn. O. vulgare hirtum) Greek Oregano
  345. Origanum virens
  346. Origanum vulgare Oregano             Bergmynte/Kung
  347. Origanum vulgare “heerenhausen”? Oregano cultivar
  348. Origanum vulgare “Showy”
  349. Origanum vulgare aureum Oregano cultivar
  350. Origanum vulgare nanaWild Marjoram cultivar
  351. Origanum vulgare variegata Oregano cultivar/Golden
  352. Oryza sativa Rice       Ris
  353. Oxalis acetosella Wood Sorrel
  354. Oxalis articulata Pink Sorrel
  355. Oxalis corniculata? Yellow Sorrel
  356. Oxalis deppei Iron Cross Plant              Meksikolykkekløver
  357. Oxalis inops
  358. Oxalis pes-caprae Bermuda Buttercup
  359. Oxalis tetraphylla
  360. Oxalis triangularis
  361. Oxalis vladivensis
  362. Oxyria digyna Mountain Sorrel             Fjellsyre
  363. Papaver somniferum “Black Beauty + other cultivars”
  364. Pelargonium “Attar of Roses”
  365. Pelargonium “Chocolate Blotch”
  366. Pelargonium “Chocolate Peppermint”
  367. Pelargonium “Clorinda”
  368. Pelargonium “Concolor Lace”
  369. Pelargonium “Copthorne”
  370. Pelargonium “Lady Plymouth”
  371. Pelargonium “Lemon Fancy”
  372. Pelargonium “Lillian Pottinger”
  373. Pelargonium “Prince of Orange”
  374. Pelargonium “Robert Lemon Rose”
  375. Pelargonium “Snowflake”
  376. Pelargonium “Best Mauve”
  377. Pelargonium “Svenskblomma”
  378. Pelargonium crispum “Citronella”
  379. Pelargonium crispum “Limoneum”
  380. Pelargonium tomentosum
  381. Pelargonium x fragrans “Nutmeg”
  382. Perilla frutescens “Hojitsu”
  383. Perovskia atripilicifolia Russian Sage
  384. Petroselinum crispum Parsley Persille
  385. Phaseolus coccineus “Kelvdon Marvel”
  386. Phaseolus lunatus Lima Bean
  387. Phaseolus vulgaris “Painted Lady” Runner Bean    Stangbønne
  388. Phaseolus vulgaris “Golden Heirloom”
  389. Phaseolus vulgaris “Red”
  390. Phaseolus vulgaris “Trout’s Black and White”
  391. Pinus spp. Pine nut
  392. Pisum sativum “Carlin Pea” Pea (dried)
  393. Pisum sativum “Purple Podded” Pea (dried)
  394. Pisum sativum “Ringeriksert” Pea (dried)
  395. Pisum sativum “Commander” Pea        Ert
  396. Pisum sativum “Epicure”
  397. Pisum sativum “Golden Sweet”
  398. Pisum sativum “Hurst Green Shaft” Pea        Ert
  399. Pisum sativum “Sugar Snap” Pea        Ert
  400. Plantago asiatica variegata Che Qian Zi
  401. Plantago camtschatica
  402. Plantago coronopus
  403. Plantago coronopus “Giant”
  404. Plantago coronopus var. coronopus
  405. Plantago major “China Giant”
  406. Plantago major “Frills”
  407. Plantago major “Turkish Giant” Greater Plantain Groblad
  408. Plantago major atropurpurea Common Plantain           Groblad
  409. Plantago major rosularis Common Plantain           Groblad
  410. Plantago maritima Sea Plantain
  411. Plectranthus amboinicus Cuban Oregano
  412. Plectranthus amboinicus “Well Sweep Wedgewood” Cuban Oregano
  413. Plectranthus amboinicus variegatus Cuban Oregano
  414. Polygonum viviparum Alpine Bistort    Harerug
  415. Porophyllum “Bolivian Purple Leaves”
  416. Porophyllum “Hoja Ancha”
  417. Porophyllum coloratum Papalo
  418. Porophyllum ruderale
  419. Portulaca oleracea
  420. Prunus cerasius Cherry (dried)   Kirsebær
  421. Prunus domestica “Czar” PLum
  422. Prunus domestica “Frosta” Plum
  423. Pycnanthemum pycnanthemoides
  424. Pycnanthemum tenuifolium
  425. Raphanus sativus “Rat-tail radish” Reddik
  426. Ribes nigrum “Øyebyn” Blackcurrant (fresh and dried) Solbær
  427. Ribes sativum “unknown” Redcurrant        Rips
  428. Ribes uva-crispa Gooseberry
  429. Ribes x culverwellii Jostaberry          Jostabær
  430. Rosa pimpinellifolia
  431. Rosmarinus officinalis “Sissinghurst Blue” Rosemary              Rosmarin
  432. Rosmarinus officinalis var. Rosemary           Rosmarin
  433. Rubus fruticosus? Blackberry          Bjørnebær
  434. Rubus idaeus Raspberry (fresh and dried)
  435. Rubus idaeus “Apricot”
  436. Rubus occidentalis Black Raspberry
  437. Rumex “Yellow Large Leaved Sorrel”
  438. Rumex “Shchavel”
  439. Rumex acetosa Sorrel Engsyre (coll. Beitostølen, Norway)
  440. Rumex acetosa “Non-flowering variety” Sorrel    Engsyre
  441. Rumex acetosella
  442. Rumex sanguineus sanguineus Red-veined Dock
  443. Rumex scutatus Buckler-leaved Sorrel
  444. Saccharum officinale Sugar Cane
  445. Salicornia quinqueflora Southern Salthorn
  446. Salvia “Willow Leaved” Willow-leaved Sage
  447. Salvia microphylla Ananassalvie
  448. Salvia microphylla Red flowered
  449. Salvia microphylla v. grahamii Blackcurrant Sage              Solbærsalvie
  450. Salvia microphylla v. neurepia
  451. Salvia officinalis “Icterina” Sage
  452. Salvia officinalis “Purpurascens” Sage
  453. Salvia officinalis alba
  454. Salvia sclarea turkestanica Muskatsalvie
  455. Sambucus nigra Elderberry (dried)           Svarthyll
  456. Sanguisorba minor ssp. minor
  457. Satureja hortensis Summer Savory               Sar/Bønneurt
  458. Satureja montana Winter Savory   Vintersar
  459. Satureja spicigera? Creeping Winter Savory               Krypsar
  460. Scorzonera hispanica Scorzonera        Svartrot
  461. Secale cereale Rye        Rug
  462. Sedum acre “Elegans”
  463. Sedum acre aureum
  464. Sedum reflexum Reflexed Stonecrop        Broddbergknapp
  465. Sedum reflexum “Angelina” Reflexed Stonecrop              Broddbergknapp
  466. Sedum reflexum “cristatus” Broddbergknapp
  467. Sesame indica Sesame
  468. Smyrnium olusatrum
  469. Solanum tuberosum “Arran Pilot” Potato  Potet
  470. Solanum tuberosum “Beate” Potato  Potet
  471. Solanum tuberosum “Blå Congo” Potato  Potet
  472. Solanum tuberosum “Cara” Potato  Potet
  473. Solanum tuberosum “King Edward” Potato  Potet
  474. Solanum tuberosum “Mandel” Potato Potet
  475. Solanum tuberosum “Pimpernel” Potato  Potet
  476. Solanum tuberosum “Shetland Blue Eye”
  477. Solanum tuberosum “Yellow Finn” Potato  Potet
  478. Sonchus oleraceus Common Sow-Thistle    Haredylle
  479. Stellaria media Chickweed
  480. Tagetes “Crackerjack”
  481. Tagetes “Disco Mix”
  482. Tagetes “Golden Gem”
  483. Tagetes “Lemon Gem”
  484. Taraxacum faroense
  485. Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rubber Dandelion          Gummiløvetann
  486. Taraxacum officinale Dandelion          Løvetann
  487. Taraxacum officinale “Pissenlit”
  488. Taraxacum pamiricum
  489. Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma
  490. Thymus “Goldstream”
  491. Thymus “Hartington Silver”
  492. Thymus “Russettings”
  493. Thymus “Broad Leaf”
  494. Thymus “Doone Valley”
  495. Thymus cilicisus
  496. Thymus collinus
  497. Thymus nummularius
  498. Thymus praecox britannicus Wild Thyme
  499. Thymus serpyllum “Snowdrift”
  500. Thymus serpyllum albus Wild Thyme       Kryptimian
  501. Thymus serpyllum ssp. tanaensis
  502. Thymus sibthorpii
  503. Thymus vulgaris Common Thyme             Timian
  504. Thymus x citriodora “Archer’s Gold”
  505. Tragopogon pratensis Jack-go-to-bed-at-noon Geitskjegg
  506. Triglochin maritima
  507. Triticum spelta Spelt
  508. Tulbaghia violacea Society Garlic
  509. Tulbaghia violacea “John May’s Special”
  510. Tulbaghia violacea “John Rider”
  511. Urtica “Stingless”
  512. Urtica cannabina
  513. Urtica dioica
  514. Urtica dioica “Sondenii”
  515. Urtica galeopsifolia
  516. Valerianella locusta “Large Leaf” Cornsalad          Vårsalat
  517. Vicia faba “Tic Bean”
  518. Vicia faba major “Express” Broad Beans      Bondebønne
  519. Vicia faba major “Konthe x Estonia Heirloom” Broad Beans              Bondebønne
  520. Vicia faba major “Sutton” Broad Beans      Bondebønne
  521. Vigna radiata Moong Bean
  522. Viola “Antique Shades”
  523. Viola “Blue Shades Mixed”
  524. Viola cornuta “Perfection”
  525. Viola cornuta alba
  526. Viola dubyana
  527. Viola glabella Stream Violet
  528. Viola labradorica
  529. Viola lutea
  530. Viola nigra
  531. Viola odorata “Königin Charlotte”
  532. Viola odorata “White Czar”
  533. Viola tricolor
  534. Viola x wittrockiana “Black Princess”
  535. Viola x wittrockiana “Hybrids”
  536. Vitis vinifera Grape (dried – raisin)     Drue
  537. Zingiber officinale Ginger  Ingefær

7th August multisalad

A little composition put together last night together with my daughter and artist friend from UK and wwoofer Kristina from Czech…including Allium macranthum (centerpiece), Allium carinatum pulchellum “Album”, Allium flavum, various Hosta flowers, tiger lily flower, Fedia, Adenophora, mallows, chicory leaf etc.

Rampions for dinner: one of the best edientomentals!

The most successful of the half dozen Phyteuma species I’ve tried in my garden has been a plant received as Phyteuma nigrum (syn. Phyteuma spicatum ssp nigrum), black rampion or (Norwegian) svartvadderot. It has much darker flowers than Phyteuma spicatum, sometimes almost black. I planted it from seed propagated plants in 2003 and this picture is from 2006-2007:

It has self-sowed freely and seems to have crossed with other accessions of Phyteuma spicata with white and blue (ssp. caeruleum) flowers that I have in my garden (these have not self-sowed much) as there is now a mix of colours in the original spot I planted nigrum. Phyteuma spicatum/nigra is also  the most popular bee plant in my garden in mid-June and a great edimental (one of the edi-entomentals, plants combining food, ornament as well as good for bees and other pollinators!). Phyteuma spicatum (rapunsel) is a very old root vegetable in Europe, mentioned already in Gerard’s Herball from 1597, but best known as a vegetable in France and Germany! The name rapunsel is related to rapa (turnip) due to its use as a root vegetable!
See my blog post from 23rd June 2017 with pictures and video of black rampion:
I tried Phyteuma spicatum as a root vegetable in 2013 and was struck by its good sweetish taste:

I harvested a lot of plants this week (late July 2018) while remaking the bed where it was growing  and was impressed by the good size of roots and yields, although it is unknown how old the individual plants were (I plan to grow some of the smaller plants elsewhere to see how quickly they grow in a shady area of the garden, as this could be a good forest garden plant, although, like Jerusalem artichoke, plants in the Campanulaceae to which Phyteuma belongs, contain the diabetic friendly but poorly digestable carbohydrate inulin):

The flower heads can also be used as a vegetable, reminiscent of Bath Asparagus flower heads (Ornithogalum pyrenaicum) see the picture from its wiki page:

I saw the plant in the wild for the first time in Austria in the Alps on my Arche Noah tour in 2017 (see, the white flowered form, growing in open woodlands.

In Norway, it grows wild a few places in southern Norway and has also naturalised in parks, including the great garden at Baroniet Rosendal (see the video and pictures at It is also found in the far north of Norway in Finnmark where it naturalised during World War II, introduced by the Germans with horse forage!

The name rapunsel is related to rapa (turnip) due to its use as a root vegetable! (with video)

Other European languages: Raiponce en épi (French), ährige Teufelskralle (German), ährige Rapunzel (Swiss German), and Raponzolo giallo (Italian)

I’ll be offering seed this autumn via Norwegian Seed Savers (KVANN):


















Half my age party!

I “noticed” a few days ago that my little girl Hazel had reached half my age (in number of days)! It was noticed that Hazel would be half my age in years on my next birthday in April 2019… thought this 23,131 day old man, when will she be exactly half my age in number of days? I couldn’t find a web page to do the calculation, so had to revert to the old method of setting up a complicated set of simultaneous mathematical equations… come up with the answer that I had missed it by two weeks :(
We decided to celebrate anyway and we ate a gourmet dinner incluidng a 1/2 birthday salad, using garlic scapes to write 1/2 on the salad!
..and, please, no comments that I dont look a day younger than 3 times her age ;)

Oriental and asiatic hybrid lilies

This is an asiatic hybrid lily growing in the garden of the flat I stayed in in Jondal during the Nordic Permaculture Festival!

An asiatic hybrid lily

According to wikipedia, asiatic hybrids include “hybrids of many Asiatic species and their interspecific hybrids, including  Lilium brownii,  Lilium henryi,  Lilium leucanthumLilium regaleLilium rosthorniiLilium sargentiae and Lilium sulphureum. The flowers are trumpet shaped, facing outward or somewhat downward, and tend to be strongly fragrant, often especially night-fragrant.”  Of these, both L. brownii and L. henryi are used for food.

On the other hand oriental hybrids “are based on hybrids within Lilium section Archelirion,specifically Lilium auratum and Lilium speciosum, together with crossbreeds from several species native to Japan, including Lilium nobilissimum, Lilium rubellum, Lilium alexandrae, and Lilium japonicum. They are fragrant, and the flowers tend to be outward facing. Plants tend to be tall, and the flowers may be quite large. The whole group are sometimes referred to as “stargazers” because many of them appear to look upwards”

I’ve never tasted hybrid lilies, but maybe I should as two of the asiatics and all the 6 oriental species involved are eaten in Japan…most importantly L. auratum which is cultivated for markets on a field scale, the others mainly foraged I think! I wonder if anyone has hybridised lilies for food rather than beauty….an interesting project for someone perhaps?


I’ve been enjoying my edimental lilies this week and eating the flowers, both is salad and in last night’s tempura!

More about edible lily bulbs in the following entries on my web site:

Beschorneria yuccoides

One of the world’s most spectacular edimentals was in flower at Mount Stewart in Northern Ireland where I was doing an edimentals walk and talk at the weekend! Related to other great edimentals like Agave and Yucca, the Mexican Lily or Patleamole is sadly not likely to be hardy in my part of the world (Yucca filamentosa is hardy though!).  Beschorneria is a small genus consisting of seven species that range from the southern US,  Mexico and Central America.  Mexican lily’s habitat is rocky massifs and cliffs in canyons and ravines from 2600 to 3,400 masl in pine-oak and fir (Abies religiosa) forest (Ref. 1).  In the same reference, it is noted that “….the flowers are edible, after being boiled and fried.”
Please let me know if you have  go :)

See the link  to an earlier post about the delicious and beautiful Yucca flowers;

Reference 1:

Cházaro-Basáñez, M.J. and Ramirez, J.V. 2015 Introducing the Succulent Flora of Mexico: Beschorneria yuccoides (Agavaceae). Cactus and Succulent Journal 87(6): 271-272