Tag Archives: diamond back moth

Moths in The Edible Garden

NB! The album and information at the bottom will be added to over the next couple of months (or more)
When I was a student in Edinburgh in the late 70s, I started in earnest to learn the names of birds, butterflies and wild plants. Then, when I moved to Norway I became interested in fungi, but really didn’t have the time to learn more than the common and edible species. In the 1990s, developing what has become known as The Edible Garden, essentially a Forest Garden or Food Forest with a huge diversity of edible plants, a kind of Food Forest Ethno-Botanical Garden. I noticed that, with the diversity of food plants in the garden, there were many pollinators attracted to the flowers of some of the plants, some attracted to one species, others to many different plants. Some uncommon in this area birds and butterflies started turning up in my garden like a) the goldfinch (stillits) attracted to the seed of greater burdock / borre (Arctium lappa) which I had planted as a vegetable and b) the peacock butterfly (dagpåfugløye) which had only once been observed in my county before and I registered this beautiful species many times between 2006-2010; one of its larval foodplants is stinging nettle, a species I had actively encouraged in the wild parts of the garden as food and for making fertilizer (nettle water) and another is hops (Humulus lupulus) which I had planted several plants of. I had also planted a couple of Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush /sommerfuglbusk) plants for the butterflies. Mum and Dad had a bush in their garden when I was growing up and they had a framed butterfly poster on the wall so that the butterflies that turned up could be identified. This and the I-SPY book about birds they bought us certainly tweeked my interest in the natural world. The peacocks loved the Buddleja as well as the hemp agrimony (Eupatorium cannabinum) I had grown from seed collected from plants growing on the Itchen River in Hampshire (I had noticed how much butterflies loved this one) and which continued the season after the Buddleja was finished. I started wondering what other interesting insects were here. I had recorded a few moths that were attracted to the outside light, but I’d always wanted to know more of what was here that I wasn’t seeing. I therefore bought a Skinner Moth Trap and through the Corona crisis I’ve been systematically documenting moths that turn up in my garden (the moths are released afterwards). I’ve been absolutely stunned by the diversity that is here and to find out that a moth is here because I planted the larval food plant is particularly exciting. I’ll be gradually presenting the different species in this album as they turned up in the garden through the season starting in April. Below the album can be found a complete list of species and information about their larval food plants.
14th February 2021: A peculiarity of living so far north is that it is so light at night that moths are no longer attracted to light, so the period around mid-summer isn’t well documented.
19th February 2021: 19 of the first 25 species are new for my munipality, Malvik Kommune*  the others all have beween 1 to 3 records previously!

The intention here is to document that producing food CAN be done in a way that also nurtures the nature of the place. 

Moth List
1. Autumn Green Carpet / Lysirrmåler (Chloroclysta miata); registered from 7th-9th April and 12th September. Females overwinter; pupates in plant debris. Larval food plants: sallows (Salix), birches, alder, limes, wild roses, rowan and bilberry (selje, bjørk, or, lind, ville roser, rogn og blåbær); all of these can be found in my garden. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
2. The Hebrew Character / Buemerket Seljefly (Orthosia gothica); 8th-23rd April. Overwinters in an underground coccoon with adult perfectly formed inside. Feeds on Salix flowers (Salix caprea grows in my garden). Larval food plants: a wide range of trees, bushes and herbaceous perennials including both meadowsweet (mjødurt) and stinging nettle (brennesle) which are both in the garden. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
3. Common Quaker / Tverrlinjet Seljefly (Orthosia cerasi); April. Overwinters in an underground coccoon with adult perfectly formed inside. Feeds on Salix and Backthorn flowers. Larval food plants: oaks, Salix, birch, elms, hawthorn, sweet chestnut and hazel (all in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
4. The Chestnut / Variabelt Flatfly (Conistra vaccinii); 8th – 21st April/ 3rd-11th October.  Overwinters as adult. Feeds on Salix catkins and overripe berries. Larval food plants: oaks,  elms, blackthorn, birch, sweet chestnut and docks (Rumex) (all in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
5. Yellow Horned / Vårhalvspinner (Achlya flavicornis); 20th-21st April. Overwinters as a pupa in a coccoon among leaves on the ground.  Feeds on Salix catkins. Larval food plants: Birch (Betula spp.) (in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
6. Clouded Drab / Variabelt Seljefly (Orthosia incerta); 20th-22nd April. Overwinters in an underground coccoon with adult perfectly formed inside. Feeds on Salix catkins and blackthorn flowers (both in the garden). Larval food plants: Many broadleaved trees including oaks and Salix. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
7. Early Tooth-striped / Bjørketungemåler (Trichopteryx carpinata); 20th April. Overwinters as a pupa, Feeds on Salix catkins. Larval food plants: Salix, birches, honeysuckle and alder (all found in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
8. Red Sword-grass / Svartkantkvistfly (Xylena vetusta); 20th April and 21st-28th August. Overwinters as adult under bark and between rocks. Feeds on Salix catkins in spring. Larval food plants: Many woody and herbaceous plants including bog myrtle (Myrica gale) which is in the garden, heathers, yellow iris, sedges and rushes. SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (the last in 1955).
9. Red Chestnut / Fiolett Vårfly (Cerastis rubricosa); 20th April to 2nd May. Overwinters as pupa in a tough silk-lined cocoon. Larval food plants; Herbaceous and woody plants including bedstraws (Galium spp.), Salix spp. and bilberry (blåbær). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
10. The Rannoch Sprawler / Vårlurvefly (Brachionycha nubeculosa); 20th April. Overwinters as a pupa underground (perhaps for more than a year). Larval food plants: Mature birch (bjørk) trees (there are some nice old birch trees in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
11. Softly’s Shoulder-knot / Grått Kappefly (Lithophane consocia); 21st-22nd April. Overwinters as adult. Larval food plants: On alders / or (Alnus) especially Alnus incana (grey alder / gråor) (both single trees of Alnus rubra and Alnus viridis in the garden; Alnus incana is found wild just outside the garden and is a common tree). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
12. The Satellite / Bølgefly (Eupsilia transversa); 21st April to 2nd May; 30th September. Overwinters as adult. A variety of broad-leaved trees and shrubs including blackthorn, hawthorn, hazel, field maple, sweet chestnut and elms (all of which are found in the garden). Notice the two small orange satellite dots around the large one, hence the English name. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
13. Pine beauty / Furufly ( Panolis flammea); 22nd April. Overwinters as a pupa in a flimsy cocoon in leaf litter or beneath bark cracks. Larval food plants: Pinus spp. (one Norwegian pine, Pinus sylvestris in the garden, otherwise a common species in this area). Feeds especially on new shoots. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
14. Scalloped Hazel / Tannmåler (Odontopera bidentata). 16th-22nd June. Overwinters as a pupa. Larval food plants: A wide range of woody plants including hazel, birch , hawthorn, blackthorn, oak, willows, barberry and even conifers (all in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
15. The Streamer / Fiolett Rosemåler (Anticlea derivata). 16th June. Overwinters as a pupa in a coccoon in loose earth. Larval food plants: Roses (Rosa spp.) (about 7 or 8 species in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
16. The Double-striped pug / knoppmåler (Gymnoscelis rufifasciata); 17th June; 8th-21st August. Overwinters in a pupa in plant debris. Larval food plants: flowers of many plants including holly, ivy, gorse, broom, heather, rowan, Clematis vitalba, Buddleja, Rosa spp., sea aster, Origanum vulgare (all apart from the first 4 are in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
17. Brimstone Moth / Sitronmåler (Opisthograptis luteolata); 21st June. Some overwinter as part grown larvae on foodplant, others as pupae in cocoons on the plant or in debris below the plant. Larval food plants: Blackthorn, hawthorn, plums, rowan and wayfaring tree (Viburnum) (all found in the garden); note that the second picture was taken in my living room on 21st January 2014, one of only two observations of this moth as an adult in winter in Norway. SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (the other also recorded here).
18. Silverground carpet / Hvit Båndmåler (Xanthorhoe montanata); 21st June – 8th July. Overwinters as a larva. Larval food plants: Herbaceous plants such as cleavers, hedge bedstraw and primrose (all in the garden). FOURTH RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* 
19. Brown Rustic / Skyggefly (Charanyca ferruginea); 21st June to 11th July. Overwinters as a larva. Larval food plants: a wide range of herbaceous plants including vetches, plantains, docks and bistort (all and a good range of these can be found in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
20. Mottled Beauty / Skogbarkmåler (Alcis repandata). 24th June to 21st August. Overwinters as a small larva on the food plant. Larval food plants: Many woody plants including blackthorn, hawthorn, oaks, birches, barberry, bilberry, bramble, honeysuckle, traveller’s joy (Clematis vitalba), juniper, Norway spruce. Also herbaceous plants such as St. John’s Wort, yarrow, wild Angelica and docks (first time registration in Malvik Kommune). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
21. Beautiful Golden Y / Fiolettbrunt metallfly (Autographa pulchrina). 24th June to 3rd September. Overwinters as a small larva among leaf litter. Larval food plants: Various herbaceous plants including nettles, hedge woundwort (Stachys sylvatica), wood avens and honeysuckle (all can be found in the garden). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
22. Small Magpie / Nesleengmott (Anania hortulata); 24th June to 18th July. Larval food plants: Nettles and occasionally other members of the Lamiaceae such as white horehound (Marrubium vulgare), black horehound (Ballotta nigra), woundworts (Stachys) and mints (Mentha) in a rolled or spun leaf (all of these can be found in the garden). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
23. Dog’s Tooth / Brunt lundfly (Lacanobia suasa); 25th June. Overwinters as pupa underground. Larval food plants: Greater plantain (Plantago major) and goosefoots (Chenopodium). (both found in the garden). 
24. Common carpet / Grå mauremåler (Epirrhoe alternata); 26th June. Overwinters as a pupa in a cocoon on the ground. Larval food plants: Cleavers (Galium aparine) and other bedstraws (Galium spp.). (several in the garden). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (the last in 1986).
25. Flame carpet / Svartrandet båndmåler (Xanthorhoe designata); 26th June to 19th July. Overwinters as a pupa. Larval food plants: crucifers (Brassicaceae). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
26. Map-winged swift / bregneroteter (Korscheltellus fusconebulosa); 27th June to 11th July. Overwinters twice as a larva and pupates underground. Larval food plants: on roots of bracken, red fescue and other broad-leaved herbs. (both common plants in this area) NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
27. Scalloped hook-tip / Fliksigdvinge (Falcaria lacertinaria); 27th June. Overwinters as a pupa in a cocoon in a folded leaf. Larval food plants: Birches (Betula spp.). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
28. Liten kongledvergmåler (Eupithecia analoga); 28th June. Overwinters as a pupa. Lives on galls produced by aphids. Larval food plants: Norway spruce (Picea abies). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
29. Riband wave / Vinkelengmåler (Idaea aversata); 27th June to 31st July. Overwinters as a small larva. Larval food plants: various herbaceous plants like bedstraws (Galium spp.), wood avens (Geum urbanum), primrose, dandelion and docks (Rumex spp.). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
30. The Spectacle / Grått neslefly (Abrostola tripartita); 30th June. Overwinters as pupa among plant debris or low down behind bark. Larval food plant: Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (larva found near to the nettle Urtica gracilis on 2nd September)
31. Silver Y / Gammafly (Autographa gamma); 30th June to 11th October. A migratory moth which is very common here and a day flier visiting various garden plants, notably Buddleja and Monarda. Larval food plants: Wild and cultivated herbaceous plants including bedstraws (Galium), clovers (Trifolium) and Nettles (Urtica). Also on vegetables such as peas, cabbage and runner beans (but I haven’t experienced problems with it).
32. Garden pebble / Kålmott (Evergestis forficalis); 30th June to 15th July. Larval food plants: Various Brassicaceae including cabbages, horseradish, radishes and swede (all in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* in 2019 (Second record for Trøndelag county and furthest north record in Norway)
33. Purple clay / Rødfrynset teglfly (Diarsia brunnea); 1st to 14th July. Overwinters as a small larva. Larval food plants: Herbaceous plants in autumn including foxglove and figworts (Scrophularia spp.)  (both in the garden). In spring also on woody plants like bilberry, heather, Salix spp., bramble and birches (the last 3 in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
34. Double dart / Krattfly (Graphiphora augur); 5th July to 8th August. Overwinters as a small larva. Larval food plants: Salix spp., birches, blackthorn, hawthorn and herbs such as docks (Rumex) (all in the garden). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (first seen here in 2019)
35. The Snout / Neslenebbfly (Hypena proboscidalis); 7th July to 21st August. Overwinters as a larva. Larval food plant: Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).
36. Shaded broad-bar / Brun bakkemåler (Scotopteryx chenopodiata); 7th-19th July. Overwinters as a larva. Larval food plants: Clovers (Trifolium spp.) and vetches (Vicia spp.) (both in the garden)
37. Bordered Pug / Burotdvergmåler (Eupithecia succenturiata); 8th July. Overwinters as pupa in loose earth. Larval food plants: Mugwort, wormwood, southernwood and yarrow (all in the garden). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE.
38. Ingrailed clay / Skogteglfly (Diarsia mendica); 8th July. Overwinters as small larva close to the ground. Larval food plants: Herbaceous plants like primroses and violets (plenty in the garden); Woodly plants like bramble, heathers, bilberry, Salix, hawthorn, blackthorn and hazel (most of those in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
39. Rustic shoulder-knot / Åkerengfly (Apamea sordens). 9th-11th July. Overwinters as a larva close to the ground. Larval food plants: Grasses including cock’s foot, couch grass and cereal crops, initially on seeds and then on leaves. NEW SPECIES FOR TRØNDELAG COUNTY (see the map below) and the northernmost record in Scandinavia. It was recorded at 63 deg N in Sweden in 2017. 

Showing the new northernmost record of Apamea sordens in Norway (small green dot near the top of the map; from Artskart) 

40. Large yellow underwing / Hagebåndfly (Noctua pronuba); 9th July to 11th October. Overwinters as a larva. Larval food plants: A wide range of herbaceous plants and grasses including docks (Rumex), cultivated Brassicas, marigold and foxglove (all in the garden). Very common species at the moth trap. SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (first seen here in 2019).
41. Small dotted buff / Sølvbunkefly (Photedes minima); 9th July. Overwinters as larva. Laval food plant: Tufted hair grass (Deschampsia cespitosa) (a common species in this area). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
42. Light emerald / Løvskogmåler (Campaea margaritaria); 10th July. Overwinters as small larva. Larval food plants: Wide range of broadleaves trees and shrubs such as oaks, hawthorns, blackthorn, hazel, birch, elm, Salix, horse chestnut and sweet chestnut (all in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
43. Pale-shouldered brocade / Busklundfly (Lacanobia thalassina); 1oth-11th July. Overwinters as a pupa in an underground coccoon. Laval food plants: Mainly woody plants such as oaks, hawthorns, apple, Salix, aspen, barberry and honeysuckle (all in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
44. Yellow Shell / Gullmåler (Camptogramma bilineata); 10th July to 21st August. Overwinters as larva on food plant. Larval food plants: Cleavers and bedstraws (Galium spp.), wormwood (Artemisia), docks and sorrel (Rumex), dandelion (Taraxacum) etc. (all in the garden)
45. Tawny marbled minor / Rettlinjet engfly (Oligia latruncula); 10th July to 15th August. Overwinters as a larva. Larval food plants: Grasses incluing cock’s foot (Dactylis glomerata). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
46. Small rivulet / Dålundmåler (Perizoma alchemillata); 10th to 31st July. Overwinters as a pupa underground. Larval food plants: Common hemp-nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit) and hedge woundwort (Stachys sylvatica). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
47. Pale mottled willow / husfly (Caradrina clavipalpis); 11th July to 12th August. Overwinters as larva underground. Larval food plants: Grass seeds including cultivated cereals both growing and in storage. Also on seeds of plantains (Plantago) and garden pea (Pisum sativum). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
48. Scarce brindle / Teglrødengfly (Apamea lateritia); 11th July.
Overwinters as a larva. Larval food plants: Roots of various grasses including sheep’s fescue (Festuca ovinia), tufted hair-grass (Deschampsia cespitosa) and wavy hair-grass (Avenella flexuosa) (two of the three common grasses in this area).
49. Garden pebble / Kålmott, Kålpyralide (Evergestis forficalis); 30th June to 15th July. Larval food plants: Various Brassicaceae such as cabbages, horseradish, radish and swedes. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*, SECOND RECORD FOR TRØNDELAG COUNTY (3 observations further north in Sweden in Umeå).
50. V-moth / Ripsbuemåler (Macaria wauaria); 12th July to 17th August. Overwinters as an egg on the food plant. Larval food plants: Blackcurrant, redcurrant and gooseberry.
51. Pale shining brown / Vinkelhakefly (Polia bombycina); 12th July.  Larval food plants: Different herbs such as docks (Rumex spp.) , deciduous trees and shrubs. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*, THIRD RECORD FOR TRØNDELAG COUNTY (only one observation further north, in 2016).
52. Elderberry pearl / Hyllengmott (Anania coronata); 12th to 21st July. Larval food plants: Elderberry, Viburnums, Lilac and Privets (all in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*, SECOND RECORD FOR TRØNDELAG COUNTY (only one observation further north, in 2015). See map below for records of this species in Norway (Artskart).


53. Burnished brass / Større båndmetallfly (Diachrysia chrysitis); 13th-31st July. Overwinters as a small larva near the ground. Larval food plants: most commonly on Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), also on white dead-nettle (Lamium album), wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare), burdock (Arctium) and thistles (Cirsium). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
54. Antler moth / Gressmarkfly (Cerapteryx graminis); 14th to 19th July. Overwinters as an egg which are scattered over grassland in flight. Larval food plants: Sheep’s fescue (Festuca ovina), Purple moor-grass (Molinia caerulea), Mat-grass (Nardus stricta) and sedges and rushes. SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
55. Scarce Silver Y / Skogmetallfly (Synographa interrogationis); 17th July to 2nd September. Overwinters as small larva. Larval food plants: Heather, Bilberry and Bog bilberry. THIRD RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
56. Pale straw pearl / Blekengmott (Udea lutealis); 17th July to 4th September. Larval food plants: Herbaceous plants like wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca), mugwort (Artemisia), bramble (Rubus) knapweeds (Centaurea) and plantains (Plantago) (all in the garden). THIRD RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
57. Great brocade / Mørkt skogfly (Eurois occulta); 28th July to 21st August. Overwinters as small larva. Larval food plants: Bog myrtle (Myrica gale), many herbaceous plants, also birch and Salix. SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
58. Rannoch looper / Brun buemåler (Macaria brunneata); 29th July. Overwinters as an egg. Larval food plants: Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and possibly cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) (both common plants around here). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
59. Cryptic burnished brass / Mindre båndmetallfly (Diachrysia stenochrysis); 29th July to 1st August. Not well known life history, but probably similar to very closely related Diachrysia chrysitis: Overwinters as a small larva near the ground. Larval food plants: most commonly on Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), also on white dead-nettle (Lamium album), wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare), burdock (Arctium) and thistles (Cirsium). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (First in 2019)
60. Common rustic? /Gressfly (Mesapamea spp.); 29th July to 8th August. Overwinters as a larva. Larval food plants: Grasses including cock’s foot, tall fescue, tufted hair-grass and cereals; Hairy wood rush. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (Genital details needed for ID)
61. Welsh wave / Rognemåler (Venusia cambrica); 1st August. Overwinters as larva in plant debris. Larval food plants: Mainly rowan and occasionally alders and birch (all in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
62. Dun-bar / Gult rovfly (Cosmia trapezina); 30th July to 2nd September.Overwinters as an egg. Larval food plants: Most broad-leaved trees and shrubs; eats larvae of other species.
63. Swallow prominent / Seljetannspinner (Pheosia tremula); 30th July. Overwinters as a pupa underground. Larval food plants: Populus spp. amd Salix spp. (several in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (FOURTH RECORD FOR TRØNDELAG COUNTY).
64. Grey mountain carpet / Grå bergmåler (Entephria caesiata); 30th July.  Overwinters as a small larva. Larval food plants: Heather, bilberry and cowberry. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
65. Red carpet /Fiolett båndmåler (Xanthorhoe decoloraria); 30th July. Overwinters as a small larva. Larval food plants: Lady’s mantle (Alchemilla spp.) (in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
66. Scalloped oak / Bølgemåler (Crocallis elinguaria); 30th July to 1st August. Overwinters as an egg on the food plant. Larval food plants: Hawthorn, blackthorn, bilberry, heather and many other broadleaved woody plants. THIRD RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
67. Clouded-bordered brindle / Kileengfly (Apamea crenata); 30th July. Overwinters  as a larva close to the ground. Larval food plants: Various grasses including cock’s foot. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
68.  Pretty pinion / Flekkbåndmåler (Perizoma blandiata); 31st July. Overwinters as a pupa in an earth cocoon. Larval food plants: Eyebrights (Euphrasia spp.). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
69. Garden carpet / Vårbåndmåler (Xanthorhoe fluctuata); 8th July to 15th September. Overwinters as a pupa underground. Larval food plants: Brassicaceae (cabbage family) including Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), Shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris), Horseradish (Armoracia), Alyssum spp., Cultivated Brassica and nasturtiums (Tropaeolum). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
70. Smoky wainscot / Brungult gressfly (Mythimna impura); 31st July.  Overwinters as a small larva. Larval food plants: Grasses including cock’s foot, common reed (Phragmites australis) and hairy woodrush. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
71. Bedstraw hawk-moth / Mauresvermer (Hyles gallii); 6th August (crossing the cycle way close to the house…helped it over before it was squashed). Overwinters as a pupa (but probably not locally; migratory). Larval food plants: Bedstraws (Galium spp.), Rosebay willowherb (Chamerion angustifolium), madders (Rubia spp.) and Fuchsia. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
72. Garden dart / Svartjordfly (Euxoa nigricans); 7th August. Overwinters as an egg on the food plant. Larval food plants: Herbaceous plants such as clovers (Trifolium), docks (Rumex) and plantains (Plantago) (plenty of those in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
73. Six-striped rustic / Tverrlinjet bakkefly (Xestia sexstrigata); 7th August. Overwinters as a larva. Larval food plants: Hedge bedstraw (Galium), Plantain (Plantago), Bramble (Rubus), Bluebell and Water figwort (Scrophularia) (all in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
74. Common wainscot /Halmgult gressfly (Mythimna pallens); 21st August. Overwinters as a small larva. Larval food plants: Grasses such as Tufted hair-grass, Annual meadow grass, Couch grass and Cock’s foot.
75. Amphipoea spp. (4 indistinguishable species, needs genitalia inspection)
76. Kobberfly (Chersotis cuprea); 7th to 18th August. Larval food plants: Asteraceae. THIRD RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
77. Phoenix / Hagebærmåler (Eulithis prunata); 8th to 21st August.  Overwinters as an egg on the food plant. Larval food plants: Blackcurrant, Redcurrant and Gooseberry (all in the garden). THIRD RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
78. Gold spangle / Storflekket metallfly (Autographa bractea); 8th August. Overwinters as a small larva. Larval food plants: Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), White dead-nettle (Lamium album), ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea), bilberry and honeysuckle (Lonicera) (all in the garden). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
79. Crescent / Brunt sumpfly (Helotropa leucostigma); 8th August. Overwinters as an egg. Larval food plants: Yellow Iris (Iris pseudacorus), Great fen-sedge (Cladium mariscus) and Purple moor-grass (Molinia caerulea) (Yellow Iris grows wild locally – I used to have it in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
80. Dotted clay / Kantplettbakkefly (Xestia baja); 31st July to 12th August. Overwinters as a small larva. Larval food plants: Herbaceous plants such as stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) and, in spring, woody plants such as willows (Salix), birches (Betula), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) and bog myrtle (Myrica gale) (all in the garden). THIRD RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
81. Twin-spot carpet / Hvitveislundmåler (Mesotype didymata); 8th August. Overwinters as an egg. Larval food plants: Wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), Bilberry, Heather, Greater stitchwort (Stellaria holostea), Red campion (Silene dioica), willowherbs, cow parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris) (all apart from heather have been recorded in the garden). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
82. Lyst klippefly (Epipsilia grisescens); 11th August (first seen in 2010). Larval food plants: Different grasses. THIRD RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* 
83. Linjelundmåler (Mesotype parallelolineata). 11th August. Larval food plants: Various low plants including Galium, Rumex, Plantago and Taraxacum species. SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
84. July highflyer / Seljebuskmåler (Hydriomena furcata); 11th to 17th July. Overwinters as an egg on the food plant. Larval food plants: Salix, Hazel, Bilberry and Heather. THIRD RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* 
85. Rosy rustic / Brunt stengelfly (Hydraecia micacea); 12th August to 5th October. Overwinters as an egg. Larval food plants: Rumex spp,  Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), Field woundwort (Stachys arvensis), potato, strawberry, hop (Humulus lupulus) and Burdock (Arctium). (Most of those in the garden).  SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
86. Siberian carpet / Flekkskogmåler (Dysstroma latefasciata); 12th August to 2nd September. Larval food plants: Bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium uliginosum), Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus), Wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
87. Dark arches / Stort engfly (Apamea monoglypha); 12th August to 29th September. Overwinters as an egg in a chamber amongst grass roots. Larval food plants: couch grass and cock’s foot. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (a second find was made by someone else a few day’s later).
88. Juniper pug / Augustdvergmåler (Eupithecia pusillata); 13th August to 4th September. Overwinters as an egg on the food plant. Larval food plants: Junipers (Juniperus spp.).
89. Red-green carpet / Mørk irrmåler (Chloroclysta siterata); 13th August to 11th October. Overwinters as an adult (only the female). Larval food plants: Broad-leaved trees including oak, blackthorn, apple, cherries, roses, rowan, birch and lime. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (in 2013) (second location recorded in 2020).
90. Green arches / Grønt skogfly (Anaplectroides prasina); 13th August. Overwinters as a larva. Larval food plants: Herbaceous and woody plants including primrose (Primula vulgaris), Rumex spp., honeysuckle (Lonicera), bramble and bilberry (all in the garden). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (in 2019)
91. Blue-bordered carpet / Rubinmåler (Plemyria rubiginata); 17th to 21st August. Overwinters as an egg, in fork of a twig. Larval food plants: Alder, blackthorn; also birches, hawthorn, plums and apple (all in the garden). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (in 2019)
92. Suspected / Rødlig løvfly (Parastichtis suspecta); 17th August to 4th September. Overwinters as an egg. Larval food plants: Birches (Betula), Salix, Populus. SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* 
93. Northern spinach / Blåbærmåler (Eulithis populata); 18th to 21st August. Overwinters as an egg on the foodplant. Larval food plants: Bilberries. SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
94. Cameo / Flekkfly (Crypsedra gemmea); 18th August to 2nd September, Overwinters as an egg. Larval food plants: Tufted hair-grass, Timothy and other grasses. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
95. Pine carpet / Fjærbarmåler (Thera firmata); 21st to 23rd August. Overwinters as an egg or a small larva on the larval food plant. Larval food plant: Norwegian (Scots) pine (Pinus sylvestris). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
96. Barred chestnut / Augustteglfly (Diarsia dahlii); 21st August. Overwinters as a larva. Larval food plants: Bilberry, bramble, Salix spp., birches, also other woody and herbaceous plants like Rumex spp. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE (and northernmost inland observation, only from outer coast further north).
97. Pink-barred sallow / Fiolett-båndet gulfly (Xanthia togata); 21st August to 29th September. Overwinters as an egg layed in rows on the food plant. Larval food plants: Catkins of Salix and Populus; later on herbaceous plants like docks (Rumex spp.). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE.
98. Flounced chestnut / Rødt høstfly (Anchoscelis helvola); 17th August to 12th September. Overwinters as an egg on a twig or bark. Larval food plants: Broadleaved trees – oaks, elms, birches, willow (all in the garden)…also heather and bilberry. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE (first in 2019).
99. Sallow / Blekt gulfly (Cirrhia icteritia); 29th August to 12th September. Overwinters as an egg layed near buds on the food plant. Larval food plants: Catkins of Salix and Populus; later on herbaceous plants like docks (Rumex spp.). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE.
AND THEN IT WAS SUDDENLY HERE, THE HOLY GRAIL OF THE MOTHERS (It was totally unexpected and I was unprepared for its size, I discovered it when I checked my moth trap before I went to bed and it was still there in the morning) 
100. Blue underwing, Clifton nonpareil / Blått ordensbånd (Catocala fraxini); 6th September. Overwinters as an egg on the foodplant. Larval food plant: Aspen (Populus tremula). (several trees in the garden) SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
In the second video below, it flies up and we see it land in our largest aspen tree!


The next two are common here and difficult to separate, but I’ve had a go but I’m not certain
101. Common marbled carpet / Bueskogmåler (Dysstroma truncata). 23rd June to 29th August. Overwinters as a larva. Larval food plants: Salix spp., birches, bilberry, bramble, heathers, privet, hawthorn, also Rumex spp. (most in the garden). 
102. Dark marbled carpet / Vinkelskogmåler (Dysstroma citrata). 21st August. Overwinters as an egg. Larval food plants: Mainly woody plants like birches, heathers, bilberry, Salix spp.; also on wild strawberry (most in the garden). 
103. Green-brindled crescent / Irrfly (Allophyes oxyacanthae); 3rd to 15th September. Overwinters as an egg on a twig on the food plant. Larval food plants: Crataegus spp., blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), Crab apple (Malus), Dog-rose, plums, cotoneasters and rowan (all in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE.
104. Grey pine carpet / Furubarmåler (Thera obeliscata); 28th August to 4th September. Overwinters as a larva. Larval food plants: Pine, Spruce and other conifers (both in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE (first in 2019).
105. Bjørkemålere (Epirrita spp.); 23rd September. Larval food plants: Various broadleaved trees and bushes. NEW SPECIES (Genus) FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE
106. Scarce umber / Gulfrostmåler (Agriopis aurantiara); 28th September to 1st November. Overwinters as an egg on the food plant. Larval food plants: Birch, hazel, hawthorn, oak, dog-rose, elm, limes, Salix and hornbeam (all in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE.
107. Winter moths / Høstmålere (Operophtera spp.); 28th to 29th September. Overwinters as an egg on the food plant. Larval food plants: Mostly birch; also alder, beech and fruit trees  (all in the garden). SECOND RECORD (this genus) FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
108. The Brick / Bølgelinjet høstfly (Sunira circellaris); 28th to 30th September. Overwinters as an egg next to buds of food plant. Larval food plants: Elm, aspen and other Populus, Salix and Ash (Fraxinus). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE (here in 2019).
109. Pale pinion / Brunt kappefly (Lithophane socia); 30th September. Overwinters as an adult under loose bark. Larval food plants: oaks, Salix, birches, apple, horse chestnut, bramble and privet (all in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE  SECOND RECORD FOR TRØNDELAG COUNTY.
110. Juniper carpet / Grå einerbarmåler (Thera juniperata); 3rd to 5th October. Overwinters as an egg on the food plant. Larval food plants: Junipers (Juniperus). (Juniperus communis is common in the forest). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE.
111. December moth / Høstspinner (Poecilocampa populi); 3rd to 4th October. Overwinters as an egg on a twig. Larval food plants: Oaks, birch, elm, hawthorn, blackthorn, Populus, Salix. (all in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE. 
112. Mottled umber / Stor frostmåler (Erannis defoliaria); 9th to 11th October. Overwinters as an egg on the food plant. Larval food plants: oaks, birches, hazel, hawthorns, blackthorn, apple, dog-rose, Salix, Acer, hornbeam, sweet chestnut and elms. (all in the garden) NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE. 
The last of the larger moths registered here in my little paradise over a year was a bit of a sensation, found inside my living room (I’ll continue after with some of the Micromoths)
113. Angle shades / Taggvingefly (Phlogophora meticulosa); 27th February 2021. Overwinters as a larva. Larval food plants: Nettle, hops (Humulus lupulus), red valerian (Centranthus ruber), Rumex spp., bramble, hazel, birches and oaks. Most common on barberry in UK (Berberis vulgaris) (all apart from Centranthus in the garden).  NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE. FIRST FIND AWAY FROM COASTAL TRØNDELAG (my county); and completely unique winter find, see the maps below. SImilarly in Sweden this moth hasn’t been found in winter north of Stockholm), Interestingly, the moth was found directly above sprigs of Berberis vulgaris that I had brought inside (put in water) for sprouting (picture). (I guess there aren’t many people that bring Berberis indoors in winter!)

Distribution of Leek Moth in Norway. The discovery of this species at Ringve Botanical Garden in Trondheim in November 2019 was a first in Trøndelag and never recorded before north of Lillehammer.
Distribution of leek moth in Norway. It was registered for the first time in Trøndelag at Ringve Botanical Garden in Trondheim in November 2019 and now also in my garden in Malvik.
Distribution of leek moth in Norway. It was discovered for the first time in Trøndelag county at Ringve Botanical Garden in Trondheim in November 2019, the first time north of Lillehammer and now also in my garden in Malvik,


All observations of Angle shades (taggvingefly) in Norway
All observations of Angle shades (taggvingefly) in Norway in February and March
Berberis vulgaris twigs in my living room.

MICROS
114. Mompha langiella; 3rd February and 24th November (inside). Larval food plants: Enchanter’s nightshade (Circaea), willowherbs (Epilobium spp. and Chamaenerion) (all in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE. 
115. Agonopterix heracliana / ciliella  22nd February to 22nd May; 16th November (often seen indoors, coming in with the firewood). Larval food plants: Cow parsley (Anthriscus), Rough chervil (Chaerophyllum temulum), Hogweed (Heracleum spp.) and other Apiaceae. (all aprat from rough chervil in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE (neither species recorded before).
116. White-shouldered house moth / Klistermøll (Endrosis sarcitrella). 7th April and 7th October. Feeds on dead animal and vegetable matter including stored cereals, rotten wood and dead insects. (not a serious pest here) NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE.
117. Diamond-back moth / Vandrekålmøll (Plutella xylostella); 26th May to 5th October. Larval food plants: Numerous plants in the Brassicaceae including cultivated vegetables (can cause serious damage to crops). 
118. Nettkjukemøll (Montescardia tessulatellus); 16th June. Larval food plants: birch polypore (fungi) (Fomitopsis betulina) (common in the forest here). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
119. Dame’s Rocket Moth / Dagfiolkålmøll (Plutella porrectella). 18th June; 12th September to 4th October. Larval food plant: Dame’s violet (Hesperis matronalis) (since I moved here there’s always been a small patch in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
120. Ryllikpraktvikler (Aethes smeathmanniana); 22nd June. Overwinters as larva amongst the seeds. Larval food plants: (sseds of) Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) and common knapweed (Centaurea nigra)  (yarrow in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
121. Marbled orchard tortrix / Grå knoppvikler (Hedya nubiferana); 23rd to 26th June. Larval food plants: Hawthorn, crabapple, plums (all in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (One of several species that mimic a bird dropping!)
122. Hoary bell / Tistelengvikler (Eucosma cana); 23rd June to 17th July. Larval food plants: thistles and common knapweed (several in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*.
123. Buskflatvikler / Jordbærflatvikler (Acleris laterana / Acleris comariana); 20th April (never recorded in April before in Norway; first picture); 12th August to 29th September. Larval food plants: Laterana – hawthorn, plums, blackthorn, roses, bramble, rowan, Salix and bilberry (all in the garden). Comariana: great burnet, marsh cinquefoil, water avens, wild strawberry, garden strawberry (most in the garden). NEW SPECIES (either) FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*.
124. Hvithodebladvikler (Pandemis cinnamomeana); 25th June to 23rd August. Larval food plants: Birches, plums, larch, rowan and bilberry. (all apart from larch in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*.
125. Yellow-faced bell / Hagerosevikler (Notocelia cynosbatella); 25th June. Larval food plants: roses and bramble. (several in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*.
126. Dark strawberry tortrix / Olivenprydvikler (Celypha lacunana); 26th June. Larval food plants: Many herbaceous plants, occasionally trees adn shrubs. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*.
127. Dichrorampha spp.?; 26th June. Several similar species which are difficult to separate. Dull looking at first glance, but have a hidden beauty!
128. Garden grass-veneer / Årenebbmott (Chrysoteuchia culmella); 27th June. Larval food plants: Grasses at the base of culm. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*.
129. Yellow-spot tortrix / Askevikler (Pseudargyrotoza conwagana); 28th June. Larval food plants: ash (in the seeds) (in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*.
130. Spireaprydvikler (Celypha siderana); 28th June. Larval food plants: Spiraea spp. (there’s an old Spiraea hedge next to one of the neighbours). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*.
131. Parsnip moth or parsnip webworm (Depressaria radiella); Larvae and larval “webs” in June/July. Larval food plants: Hogweeds (Heracleum spp.) and Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa). (this is a “pest” to us that grow parsnips for seed and Heracleum seed as a spice). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (but have had this in the garden for many years).
132. Red clover casebearer / Kløversekkmøll (Coleophora deauratella); 13th July. Larval food plant: Red clover (Trifolium pratense). (in the  garden) NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
133. Apple Fruit Moth / Rognebærmøll (Argyresthia conjugella); 15th July. Larval food plants: Rowans (Sorbus spp.) and apple (when rowan fails) (I experienced a lot of damage on my apple trees some years until I planted different Sorbus species in the garden; I haven’t had serious problems now for about 10 years. NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (it’s been in the garden here for at least 40 years).
134. Summer rose bell / Krattrosevikler (Notocelia roborana); 12th to 19th July. Larval food plants: Roses (several in the garden). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
135. Leek moth / Purremøll (Acrolepiopsis assectella); 19th July to 16th November. Larval food plants: Onions (Allium) including leeks and garlic. (not too happy to have found this species in my garden  NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE* (First record for Trøndelag county at Ringve Botanical Garden in November 2019). 


Distribution of leek moth in Norway. It was discovered for the first time in Trøndelag county at Ringve Botanical Garden in Trondheim in November 2019, the first time north of Lillehammer and now also in my garden in Malvik.

136. Pentz’s tortrix / Praktskyggevikler (Eana penziana); 19th July. Larval food plants: sheep’s fescue and, on the coast, sea plantain (Plantago maritima), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and sea thrift (Armeria maritima). (Plantago maritima and Armeria in the garden). NEW SPECIES FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*.
137. Small birch bell / Svartflekket kveldvikler (Epinotia ramella); 31st July to 23rd August. Larval food plants: Birches. SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*
138. Borkhausenia fuscescens? (uncertain ID); 29th July. Larval food plants: Leaf litter, also in bird’s nests and decaying conifer wood.
139. Golden leafroller moth / Rød flatvikler (Acleris holmiana); 30th July to 3rd September. Larval food plants: Hawthorn, roses, apples, pears, bramble, plums, blackthron (all in the garden). SECOND RECORD FOR MALVIK KOMMUNE*



*Malvik Kommune is the municipality where I live and includes an area of 168 sq km (65 sq miles). See
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malvik

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Biological control

I registered 3 great tit (kjøttmeis) territories and 1 blue tit (blåmeis) pair in the garden this year and both have raised young. One of the young great tits has been picking off diamond back moth (kålmøll) larvae on flowering radish plants on the balcony as you can see in the video:

More perennial kales

The perennial kales overwintered well the last two winters and are looking good. I showed a video of one I got from Walsall Allotments in Birmingham, UK a few years ago here last week: https://www.edimentals.com/blog/?p=25787
The first below is one of Chris Homanics’ perennial crosses (I lost track of which cross this is). It has large dark glossy leaves (a bit reminiscent of Glazed collards) and hasn’t flowered, concentrating instead its energy into producing leaves! This is a keeper.
This is followed by non-flowering offspring of  my Daubenton cross with Purple Sprouting Broccoli in 2012 and still alive https://www.edimentals.com/blog/?page_id=1632. These have inherited the daubenton genes but one is taller and has bigger leaves. I’m still playing with the offspring on the broccoli side, but they are less perennial but some have survived for 5 years but the broccolis are smaller than the father, but still useful.
Finally is a current picture of Daubenton variegated.
AND Diamond back moth (kålmøll) is now here in large numbers (over 100) and will have almost no impact on these kales, nor will other pests!

1. Homanics Norway perennial kale

2. Daubenton like (from Daubenton x Late Purple Broccoli cross)

3. Daubenton variegated 

 

Sustainable kales

I’m more and more convinced that perennial kales are the way forward. After two mild winters I’ve had good overwintering of most varieties except Tree Collards from California.
The film below shows a kale which I call “Walsall Allotments” which I found growing at Walsall Allotments in Birmingham (see https://www.edimentals.com/blog/?page_id=2868) on the allotment of a Kenyan man. I never managed to find out where he got these kale from, but Kenya is the only country was the only country where perennial kales were still grown commercially at the time I was researching my book. At the end of the video we see another perennial Brassicaceae, sea kale (strandkål) Crambe maritima. Note that the variety Lily White flowers significantly earlier than my other varieties.


A few days ago the plague of Brassica growers, diamond back moth (kålmøll) arrived in significant numbers here and I see on various FB groups that folk are using floating mulch and enviromesh to protect their crops. I had done the same for years, but decided that I wanted to grow vegetables without non-sustainable oil based products like Agryl fleece which is no doubt also a major source of plastic fibres in nature. Agryl is also used to bring on annual crops earlier. However, there is an alternative plastic free and sustainable alternative using perennials. As you can see, my kales having grown for two and a half months are large and have been providing kale leaves since early spring. Their main growth period is now over but will be resumed in autumn. Although diamond back moths and other butterflies lay their eggs on these kales damage isn’t significant. Therefore I am totally unworried by this invasion of moths!
Of course there are problems with perennial kales too, such as cold hardiness, deer and woodpigeons (rådyr / ringduer) in the winter and lack of diversity, but breeding projects by amateurs such as Chris Homanics in Oregon are changing all that!

Biological control

This chiffchaff (gransanger) is doing its best to control the invasion of diamond back moths (kålmøll) larvae! On cress (karse) and radish (reddik) being grown for seed! I also observed house sparrows (gråspurv) feeding on them earlier today! I was cheering them on!
http://www.edimentals.com/blog/?p=23073

Diamondbacks are back :(

There’s been a major arrival of diamondback moths (kålmøll) here since yesterday and there are hundreds of this major Brassica pest in the garden today!  I am thankfully only growing perennial kales (Brassica oleracea) and resistent sea kale (Crambe maritima) this year, both of which are already close to maximum yield and unlikely to be severely affected by the moth. This also means I don’t need to use any form of protection (horticultural fleece / fiberduk) which is probably a major source of agricultural microplastics. Problem solved!

Sea kale/strandkål (Crambe maritima):

Perennial kales (Brassica oleracea):

Rapunsel

Phyteuma spicatum is the most popular bee plant in my garden at the moment and a great edimental….a very old root vegetable in Europe, mentioned already by Gerard’s Herball from 1597, but best known as a vegetable in France and Germany.
These pictures are from a bed in my garden where I originally planted Phyteuma nigrum (P. spicatum subsp. nigra) many years ago. It must have crossed with other plants elsewhere in my garden as there’s now a range of colours from white to almost black!
The name rapunsel is related to rapa (turnip) due to its use as a root vegetable!

This video was taken in June 2016 during the big diamond back moth invasion..

House sparrow: better late than never

While eating breakfast this morning I spotted these house sparrows (gråspurv) eating diamond back moth (kålmøll) larvae from the undersides of these ragged jack kale plants, sown as a salad crop, but long since given up to the moths… Better late than never I suppose!!

P1080040
You can just see the larvae in this male’s beak!

P1080038
You can just see a larva in this male’s beak!

P1080051 P1080049